About Creative Biolabs
For more: https://www.creative-biolabs.com/immuno-oncology/
By Geminismith, 2023-09-19
A CRO dedicated to the research on SARS-CoV-2 and relevant mutants in terms of virology and drug and vaccine discovery recently updated its service portfolio in agreement with further SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic exploration, hoping for prosperous results of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics will yield with joint efforts.
Good news came alongside the closing of 2022 that a study concerning the control of SARS-CoV-2 infection was published in the journal Nature Communications, presenting a promising route that may help curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging mutants.
SARS-CoV-2, which first surfaced in the winter of 2019, is currently being fought aggressively by the entire world. Thankfully, effective prophylactic immunizations were developed and licensed for use, and positive results were quickly attained. Yet, the most recent data from England demonstrate a strong correlation between the COVID-19 "vaccination" and higher mortality. There is still a long way to go because there is an urgent need for more precise methods of infection management and therapeutic options that work.
One of the contract research organizations (CROs) provides comprehensive solutions that span the production of IVD immunological assays, drug discovery, and research-use antibodies (such as the therapeutic human monoclonal antibody for SARS-CoV-2).
"The most relevant technique to restrict the spread of COVID-19 is still vaccinations, among which DNA vaccine is gaining a position because it is exceptional in performance, adaptable for monitoring, and easy to create," says an expert with vast experience working on coronavirus-related projects, and "our SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccine service can be a wise option for involving researchers."
The majority of Creative Biolabs' efforts are put on developing antiviral drugs, spanning all the common therapeutic pathways available in research, including complement therapies, protease inhibitors, and neutralizing antibodies.
Before progressing a candidate to the following stage, which may involve clinical trials, efficacy and safety aspects must also be assessed. In order to provide the most in-depth and comprehensive analytical analysis, the specialist stated, "We've also built proprietary platforms for SARS-CoV-2 medication validation." The system includes:
* Reverse genetics systems
* Cell lines: ACE2-overexpressing stable cell lines & spike-expressing stable cell lines
* Protease inhibitor assay
"We are becoming more effective as viruses change and new ones appear at a faster rate than ever. We're on the verge of success, and perhaps by the end of 2023, we'll all be able to put this issue to rest."
By Geminismith, 2023-09-18
Exosomes have emerged as potential treatments for central nervous system (CNS) disorders, thanks to cutting-edge research. This development is particularly significant in a field where exosome effectiveness has become paramount.
In the last decade, researchers have revealed the crucial role of extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, in facilitating both short-range and long-range communication among brain cells and beyond. These vesicles serve as carriers for bioactive molecules, encompassing proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and even functional miRNAs.
Exosome diagnostics are emerging as valuable tools for identifying and characterizing CNS diseases. Their role in intercellular communication and ability to carry distinctive genetic material can thus be seen as biomarkers for identifying and treating a variety of disorders.
Some exosome surface markers exhibit disease specificity, making them potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis. Diseases involved in the discovery and research of exosomes as diagnostic biomarkers include but are not limited to:
* Tumor Diagnosis-Applied Exosomes
* Pregnancy Disorders Diagnosis-Applied Exosomes
* Cardiovascular Diseases Diagnosis-Applied Exosomes
Exosomes in the brain can be released by sources such as bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells, neural stem cells (NSCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), affecting numerous brain disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), among others.
Beyond diagnostics, recent research has unveiled the potential of exosomes in the treatment of CNS diseases, offering new hope for patients with conditions like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). One significant breakthrough is the discovery that exosomes derived from stem cells have neuroprotective properties, promoting neurogenesis and modulating inflammation in the CNS.
Exosomes produced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been discovered to have neuroprotective qualities. In clinical settings, these exosomes can improve cognitive performance and slow the buildup of amyloid- plaques, a hallmark pathology of Alzheimer's disease. According to this study, exosome-based therapeutics might be a viable option for halting or even reversing the progression of Alzheimer's disease.
Exosome in Parkinson
By delivering therapeutic compounds and encouraging the survival of dopaminergic neurons, exosomes have proven they have the ability to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Exosomes from various sources, such as MSCs and neural stem cells, have been shown to boost neuroprotective effects and reduce neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease models, according to recent research.
Exosome in Traumatic Brain Injury
Long-term neurological impairments are frequently a result of traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Exosomes made from MSCs have demonstrated the capacity to reduce neuroinflammation and advance tissue regeneration in TBI models. These results imply that exosome-based therapeutic approaches may present fresh opportunities for the management and rehabilitation of TBI.
In summary, exosomes are emerging as a promising avenue for both diagnosis and treatment in the realm of CNS diseases. Their potential to serve as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic agents holds significant promise for improving the lives of patients with various neurological conditions.
By Geminismith, 2023-09-14
As summer unfolds in the year 2023, people will contend with not only scorching temperatures but also the constant annoyance of mosquitoes buzzing around and biting at every opportunity. The combination of high temperatures and factors such as food spoilage creates an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes, making them a prominent threat during the summer months.
But why are mosquitoes considered the killers of summer? The three main mosquito species, Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles, are effective vectors for the transmission of various deadly viruses. Among them, Aedes aegypti, commonly found in subtropical and tropical regions, is the primary transmitter of the dengue virus.
Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the dengue virus transmitted through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, continues to be a significant global health challenge. With millions of people affected annually, accurate and timely diagnosis is crucial for managing the disease and preventing severe complications.
Traditional diagnostic methods for dengue infection include serological tests that detect dengue-specific IgM and IgG antibodies, or viral RNA detection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, recent research has focused on improving diagnostic accuracy and efficiency through IgM antibody engineering.
A study published in Frontiers in Immunology, titled "Association of Dengue Infection with Anti-alpha-gal Antibodies, IgM, IgG, IgG1, and IgG2," investigated the variation in alpha-gal antibody titers among participants from a dengue-endemic area in Norte de Santander, based on their infective status detected by dengue IgM testing, location, days of symptoms, and dengue disease severity classification. Additionally, the study also revealed a significant positive correlation between anti-alpha-gal IgG and the duration of dengue symptoms in patients.
As described in the article, a positive ELISA test for specific IgM antibodies in the patient's serum confirms dengue virus infection. Consequently, researchers and diagnostic service providers have been working on improving dengue diagnostic methods through IgM antibody engineering services, aiming to provide innovative diagnostic solutions.
By combining the constant region of IgG antibodies with the variable region of IgM antibodies, engineered IgM antibodies offer enhanced stability, specificity, and ease of production. These modified antibodies have demonstrated improved diagnostic capabilities, serving as valuable tools for dengue detection. They can enhance the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic assays, leading to more accurate and reliable results.
In addition to the dengue virus transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, other disease-causing pathogens, such as the encephalitis B virus and malaria parasites, are also carried by mosquitoes. The period from July to August makes the endemic season for encephalitis B.
Given the severity of these infectious diseases, early and accurate diagnosis plays a vital role in containing the spread of the viruses. In order to reduce the incidence of these infections during the later stages of development, numerous scientists have focused on the non-IgG antibody application for clinical diagnosis.
In conclusion, ongoing research and collaboration among scientists, healthcare professionals, and antibody development service providers are essential for further refining and implementing these diagnostic advancements. These efforts bring us closer to achieving effective control and prevention of mosquito-borne viral diseases on a global scale.
By Geminismith, 2023-09-13
The COVID-19 pandemic, which emerged at the end of 2019, may have receded from public consciousness, but its impact continues to reverberate. Over the past three years, countries worldwide have grappled with multiple waves of widespread infection. Although many nations have now established immunity barriers, the risk of long COVID symptoms and recurrent infections still looms large. Such repeated infections could have a profound effect on individuals' immune function.
A research team conducted a year-long follow-up study, scrutinizing the antibody response of COVID-19 patients and analyzing the correlation between antibody response and neutralizing antibody activity. Recently, published in the Frontiers in Immunology journal as "Evaluation of Humoral Immune Response in Relation to COVID-19 Severity Over 1 Year Post-Infection: Critical Cases Show a Higher Humoral Immune Response Than Mild Cases," this study sheds light on the long-term dynamics of SARS-CoV-2-specific B cell memory in recovered COVID-19 patients.
Monitoring antibody levels in individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 or received vaccinations is crucial. The research team employed various methods to achieve this goal. They used the recombinant protein of the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 domain as an antigen and employed the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect IgG antibodies in COVID-19 patients.
ELISA, a plate-based assay technique, facilitates the detection and quantification of peptides, proteins, and hormones. It relies on specific antigen-antibody binding and utilizes enzymes. In ELISA, an antigen (or antibody) is immobilized on a solid surface, followed by the addition of enzyme-conjugated antibodies after incubation with specific antibodies (or antigens). Detection involves evaluating conjugated enzyme activity through incubation with a substrate to yield a quantifiable result.
The team also utilized indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) by infecting Vero E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2 samples obtained from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. IIF is a two-step serological technique used to identify circulating autoantibodies in a patient's serum. This method involves a primary, unlabeled antibody binding to the target, followed by a fluorophore-labeled secondary antibody to detect the primary antibody. Although more complex and time-consuming, IIF is more sensitive due to the ability of more than one secondary antibody to bind to each primary antibody, thus amplifying the fluorescence signal.
By observing the distribution and localization of specific antibodies within cells and tissues, IIF provides valuable insights into the effectiveness of the immune response. Using ELISA and IF in tandem aids in the development of targeted and personalized treatment strategies for post-COVID care.
In the pursuit of more effective COVID-19 management, human anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike recombinant antibody (CR3022 antibody) therapy emerges as a promising development. By targeting the spike protein of the virus, CR3022 can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and potentially inhibit viral infection. Incorporating CR3022 antibody therapy into post-COVID care, along with the monitoring provided by ELISA and IF, may offer heightened protection, especially for high-risk individuals and those with compromised immune systems.
In addition to CR3022 antibody, other anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies such as mouse anti-SARS-CoV-2 recombinant antibody also have been developed against novel coronavirus. Alongside antibody-focused strategies, maintaining essential public health measures such as mask-wearing, social distancing, and vaccination remains critical to curbing the virus's spread and preventing new variants.
By Geminismith, 2023-09-12
The hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is erosive arthritis, an autoimmune disease that ultimately results in joint deformities and functional loss. It can also be complicated by pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, malignant tumors, and depression.
The etiology of RA remains unclear. However, infections have been suggested as environmental triggers in as many as 20% of patients. Due to its perplexing etiology, a more detailed exploration of the pathogenesis of RA has been presented in an article titled "Altered antibody response to Epstein-Barr virus in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy subjects predisposed to the disease" published in Immunol. The article delves deeper into the potential connection between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and RA, employing dependable tests that quantify antibodies directed against specific EBV antigens.
So why did the research team link EBV to the development of RA? A disease similar to RA called polyarticular arthritis is induced by various viral infections, including rubella, HTLV-1, parvovirus B19, etc. Given that EBV has been connected with other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus, it is reasonable to assume that this virus may also be related to the pathogenesis of RA.
Therefore, this article investigates the EBV antibody patterns in rheumatoid arthritis patients to assess the heritability of the antibody responses to the EBV-encoded EBNA1 protein, ultimately concluding that the levels of EBNA1 antibodies are notably dissimilar in RA patients compared to healthy individuals.
Nevertheless, the findings reached in this article represent just a fraction of the complex investigation into the etiology of RA. Undoubtedly, the uncertain underlying causes of RA pose challenges for accurate diagnosis. RA can affect individuals of any age, but it is most frequently diagnosed in individuals between the ages of 35 and 50. Early diagnosis of RA can help identify people at risk of RA and prevent complications and disease progression.
Modern imaging techniques, such as X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound, aid in diagnosing RA by capturing images of affected joints. However, these methods are challenging for early RA diagnosis due to the similarity of early symptoms with those of other diseases. Additionally, detection methods that use serum markers, such as the anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide test in combination with rheumatoid factor, can improve the final diagnosis of patients with negative results from routine tests.
As an efficient and precise method, IVD immunological assays and test kits rely on the specific recognition between one or more antibodies and an antigen, allowing for the detection and quantification of various antibodies in different types of samples (including serum, urine, saliva, environmental media, and more).
Specifically, some rheumatoid arthritis biomarkers that have been developed for early diagnosis of RA include but are not limited to UH-RA 1, UH-RA 9, UH-RA 14, UH-RA 21, Rheumatoid Factor, 14-3-3 Eta Protein, PAD4, etc.
Not only are RA biomarkers evolving, but so are their development solutions in the following approaches:
* IVD Antibody Development
* Antibody Pair Development
* Antibody & Protein Conjugation
* IVD Immunoassay Development
By Geminismith, 2023-08-17
The cat allergy is arguably the saddest development for cat lovers. The moment you come in contact with the cat, you start to sneeze, experience runny nose, itchy eyes, skin rashes, and even have asthma problems.
Cat allergies affect one in ten people, which is a significant number. Cat allergies affect as much as 30% of the population in some places.
Many people who claim to be cat slaves insist on owning cats while suffering from allergies. Some people, on the other hand, are forced to euthanize their cats because they or members of their family suffer from severe allergies. It hurts in both cases.
Contrary to popular belief, cat fur is not the problem. The primary allergen is a protein called Fel d 1 that is released by the sebaceous and salivary glands of cats. This protein, which cats lick all over their bodies, adheres to carpets, curtains, bed sheets, people's hair, and clothing, and is released into the air through dander and hair. Even after a thorough cleanup, felt d 1 is challenging to get rid of due of its extreme stickiness. Most people can benefit from finding an anti-allergic treatment that targets Fel d 1.
Through immune control mechanisms, allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT), a treatment that promotes tolerance, alters the course of allergic disorders.
Recently, researchers from the Luxembourg Institute of Health explained in an article published in the journal Allergy under the title "Comprehensive mapping of immune tolerance yields a regulatory TNF receptor 2 signature in a murine model of successful Fel d 1-specific immunotherapy using high-dose" that high-dose specific adjuvant molecules CpG oligonucleotides can modify the immune system's allergic response to the major cat allergen Fel d 1, thereby promoting human tolerance.
The ability of humans to endure the highest CpG dose in endotoxin-free conditions was assessed after researchers built a BALB/c OlaHsd mice efficacy model allergic to Fel d 1 in order to study the clinical effect of high-dose CpG adjuvant AIT. It was discovered that the allergic mice treated with AIT showed lower IgE levels and higher IgA and IgG (anti-inflammatory effects), and the lung function and respiratory tract inflammation were obviously improved. This was done by detecting the Fel d 1 specific antibodies in the serum of the mice.
The levels of pro-allergic cytokines in mice treated with AIT were found to be lower than those in untreated allergic mice when the researchers looked further into the cytokines in mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). This demonstrates how AIT can lessen bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in a preclinical setting.
The researchers also observed that a significant number of immune cells involved in allergy regulation and tolerance, such as regulatory T cells (T-regs), regulatory B cells (B-regs), natural killer cells (NKs), plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), and regulatory T cells (T-regs), expressed high levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-), tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR-2), and act as a "brake" on the immune system.
The researchers also discovered that AIT activates a novel Treg dubbed biTreg, which can balance effector cells' responses to antigens. This underlines the anti-allergic impact of AIT and the reversibility of allergic features.
In order to translate these findings into clinical practice, scientists have created a subcutaneous (sc) injection medication delivery technique that is more efficient than conventional intraperitoneal (IP) injection at reducing the amount of airway eosinophils and inhibiting the Th2 immune response.
The researchers created a medically acceptable mode of delivery and optimized the ATI specific therapy for cat allergy based on the highest CpG dose that humans could take, setting the groundwork for the creation of novel allergic immunotherapy.
In addition to AIT, researchers are still developing alternative strategies.
- Vaccinate cats to stop them from developing fel d 1.
- Through the cat food, the antibodies that neutralize allergens are immediately injected into the cat's body.